Sunday, April 19, 2020

Organizational Culture and Change Management Essay Sample free essay sample

Abstraction Change is an inevitable happening. Culture is something familiar that makes people peculiarly in an organisation feel slightly unafraid. The trouble comes in seeking to accommodate alteration and civilization particularly in the event of amalgamations and acquisitions or organisations. Too frequently. the human factor is underestimated. Because of this. what benefits that are supposed to be brought by the amalgamation falls apart. Experts say that the key to successful alteration direction lies in fixing an already â€Å"change capable† environment even before something like a amalgamation happens. Communication. premeditation and a system that promotes diverseness and tolerance are advanced as valuable patterns in successful organisational and cultural change/integration direction. Organizational Culture and Change There is a cliche that says there are two things in life that are inevitable: alteration and revenue enhancements. In the organisational scene. while both can be major concerns. there is nil more complex and more ambitious than covering with alteration. We will write a custom essay sample on Organizational Culture and Change Management Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Change is something that most companies. groups and organisations experience and undergo at some point. It could be through a alteration of leading. a amalgamation or merely new societal and forces issues that come with the times. For many. alteration can do rather a period of turbulence and even unease. So much so that it is non unusual that opposition to such alteration may be found from people in an organisation. There is a inquiry here of whether such opposition is fueled by personal positions on how the organisation runs things or is it a affair of misdirection and underestimate of the importance of proper cultural integrating? Should this go an issue of civilization. how can an organization’s leader assist his crew weather the alterations in a peaceable and non-threatening manner? Surveies of civilizations within an organisation came to the bow in the 1980’s ( Aaltio A ; Mills. 2002. p. 3 ) . The so sensed growing of a â€Å"internationalization† and development of multi-cultural work forces called for a direction attack that was more subjective with a position of sensitiveness to cultural differences as opposed to what were once nonsubjective direction patterns. Among these new displacements in direction emerged the impression of â€Å"mini cultures† within an organisation as proposed by â€Å"organizational pedagogues and practicians seeking more comprehensive ways of understanding organisational behaviour and management† ( p. 4 ) . The recognized definition of corporate and organisational civilization is † a set of values and beliefs and scheme that are understood and shared by members of an organisation. † ( Recardo A ; Jolly. 1997 ) It dictates what is deemed â€Å"acceptable† from subjects runing from topics of conversation to how the group is run. It can besides be considered as the â€Å"driving force† behind the behaviours. work ethic. methods and productiveness demonstrated by the members of the workforce/organization. It is besides treated as the beginning of â€Å"tried and tested† methods in covering with both internal and external issues. struggles and achievement of organisational aims ( Nahavandi A ; Malekzadeh. 1993. p. 10 ) One illustration is the repute of the Delaware house W. L. Gore and Associates in 1993. Manufacturing merchandises runing from wire and overseas telegrams to medical supplies and cloths. the company has been known for its informal organisational civilization. There is virtually no hierarchy and formal rubrics. Creativity and invention are extremely encouraged and position symbols are considered unneeded and even estranging. For a new director to demo up for work with something that can be perceived as a â€Å"status symbol† is considered â€Å"highly inappropriate† ( p. 10 ) Organizational civilization is driven by many different factors such as leading and direction manner. client demands. organisational size and so on. There are nevertheless eight major dimensions by which organisational civilization may be distinguished. These are communicating. preparation and development. criterions and awarding of wagess. determination devising. hazard taking. planning. teamwork. and assessment and execution of direction patterns. ( Recardo A ; Jolly. 1997 ) Communication refers to the manner direction and the organization’s work force communicate. What method of communicating is most applied? One on one negotiations or memo poster? Do the members and direction portion thoughts and decide struggles in â€Å"bull sessions† or are issues and concerns more officially addressed and structured in meetings? When it comes to forces developing. the management’s committedness and attempts to supply the forces with chances for growing and development through farther instruction and preparation influence the organization’s civilization. Wagess are besides portion of the civilization as members are oriented and move along the criterions of productiveness and engagement that would deserve promotion for them. How the organisation decides on issues and buttockss hazards and subsequent action are besides dictated by the group’s civilization. Even the encouragement and disheartenment of hazards and advanced thoughts are governed by civilization. The same goes with how programs are mapped and executed every bit good as how degrees of success accomplished by squads and direction are judged. All these things are covered in the kingdom of organisational civilization. All the day-to-day things that people expect and are imbued with in their every twenty-four hours at work are all portion of their organization’s civilization. It is hence apprehensible how some members of an organisation may experience threatened and even resistant to the attack of alteration. Take for case the entry and Ascension of adult females in what may be viewed as a male-dominated corporate hierarchy. In 2005. the National Center for Educational Statistics pegged adult females in America as busying more than half the seats in the nation’s college schoolrooms and gaining more than half the MBAs ( Jandeska A ; Kraimer. 2005 ) . More than half of today’s American work force including those in what were once male dominated industries is made up of adult females. Despite this nevertheless. adult females by and large still earn less than work forces. Merely a really few adult females will most likely range top direction position and see the same professional and extrinsic success as enjoyed by their male opposite numbers. ( p. 1 ) Are adult females viewed as possible menaces that should hence be boxed out or are organisations merely traveling on the sensed laterality of the male sex that make them better leaders? While there are many theories advanced as to the causes of this peculiar province of personal businesss. there is a relentless belief that there is a â€Å"male-oriented† organisational civilization that hinders women’s advancement in the dominance towards leading. This â€Å"male† civilization may be distinguished by an organization’s penchant for â€Å"hierarchical authorization. independency. bossy leading. and top-down communication† ( Bajdo A ; Dickson. 2001 ) Surveies besides observe that in contrast to the more â€Å"independent† male-dominated and shaped organisational civilizations. those chiefly influenced by adult females are more â€Å"team oriented† and tended to stress interpersonal relationships and power sharing among the members of their organisation. ( Bajdo A ; Dickson. 2001 ) There are two ways by which an organization’s leading can impact an organization’s civilization. The first is in the choice of the organization’s cultural way every bit good as its saving. Opposing this is the more hard undertaking of pull offing the organisation in times of alteration that call for a re-assessment and displacement in the existing civilization. The latter undertaking is one which most new directors find disputing. An organisation whose members have grown used to working independently with really minimum supervising may happen it hard to accept and set to a new leading that is more bossy and involved. â€Å"Imbedded in the civilization or individuality of an organisation are guidelines that are used by members of the organisation as expressions for reading and behavior† ( Poole. 1998 ) . In the state of affairs of a more involved leader taking over a squad that has become accustomed to working on their ain. the leader’s actions may be perceived as tampering or critical of the team’s capablenesss to carry through their undertaking. Organizational and corporate amalgamations are even more hard to pull off and decide as amalgamations non merely affect the differences between a leader and a group’s bing civilization but besides a possible struggle between two bing and â€Å"proven† civilizations. On the popular telecasting show â€Å"Survivor† ( 2000 ) contestants are divided into two folks. Both folks are allotted clip to construct their cantonments. signifier confederations and schemes with other members of the same folk. Tribal members recognize and align precedences and work together towards a coal whether it’s to vote a individual off first. how to acquire the better of the rival folk. and who will be working together to make the â€Å"final three. † Both tribes Begin to develop a â€Å"culture† of their ain. Are they the blithe folk who strongly resents being told what to make or â€Å"micro-managed† by the bossiest member in their group preferring merely to speak about amusing and entertaining things? Or will they be a extremely organized folk organizing sub-groups determined by accomplishment. leading and possible part to the camp’s nutriment under the supervising of an elected or dominant tribe leader? What is common among both folks is the apprehensiveness at the inevitable folk switches and amalgamations. Here. truenesss will be tested and confederations. schemes. established cantonment environment and hierarchies will either be proven and validated or challenged and dashed to spots. Corporate and organisational amalgamations reached its extremum of popularity in the â€Å"merger mania† of the 1970’s and 80’s ( Nahavandi A ; Malekzadeh. 1993. p. 1 ) . While most amalgamations are made with the primary end of net income devising on a firm’s â€Å"dismantling and merchandising of assets† ( p. 1 ) . some were strategic moves in footings of merchandise and market development. resource consolidation every bit good as the decrease of rival Numberss in a specific industry. Whatever the motive. amalgamations bring with it new people. policies. leading. and cultures that must be integrated carefully with the already bing system. In the same manner. the menaces and inevitable opposition from civilizations within the old system must besides be anticipated and addressed by direction peculiarly those who are new. Most of the clip. it is the civilization of the geting organisation that prevails against the one being acquired. This will find cardinal factors such as liberty. hierarchy and study devising of the members of the acquired organisation. As with the instance of â€Å"Survivor. † the â€Å"acquiring group† is translated to be the stronger and more significant folk in footings of Numberss and strengths in winning challenges. The minority. in order to last. will hold to larn to accommodate and take steps to either signifier confederations with members of the dominant bulk. In corporate and organisational amalgamations. whether the bing civilization of the acquired group is centralized or decentralized. it is normally the geting organization’s determinations. policies and civilization that will be the guiding step â€Å"regardless of what is best for the overall organization† ( Nahavandi A ; Malekzadeh. 1993. p. 50 ) . Buono ( 1992 ) states that it is common a belief among human resource ( HR ) practicians that the success or failure of amalgamations and acquisitions are extremely dependent on the relationships and group kineticss formed on both the interpersonal and intergroup degrees following the amalgamation. The consequence of amalgamations on an organization’s members is both important and variable. Besides the inevitable structural and cultural alterations. members of either organisation peculiarly the one being acquired may convey emphasis and feelings of being threatened in footings of new group and policy accommodations every bit good as possible loss of employment. These concerns may significantly impact the productiveness every bit good as the private lives of the persons concerned ( Walter. 2004. p. 104 ) . For the persons involved. these feelings can take to a sense of loss. psychosomatic troubles. and matrimonial every bit good as personal strife. Yet. what is frequently overlooked is that M/As non merely interrupt the lives of persons but necessarily destabilise the organisations involved every bit good. Inter-firm consolidations frequently precipitate lowered employee committedness and productiveness. increased dissatisfaction. high turnover. leading and power battles. and a general rise in dysfunctional behaviours such as sabotage ( Buono 1992 ) . An illustration of this is the bead in gross revenues experienced by pharmaceutical company Wellcome in 1998 after jobs surfaced in the manner their amalgamation was handled after being bought up by pharmaceutical maker giant Glaxo in 1995. â€Å"In any instance. large amalgamations are riotous and can hit morale. Wellcome’s gross revenues are said to hold been affected by jobs originating from the amalgamation of the two gross revenues forces. † ( â€Å"Patent Problems Give a. † 1996. p. 69 ) In 2002. the English newspaper Birmingham Post published a survey undertaken by accounting house Deloitte A ; Touche that named â€Å"poorly executed amalgamations and acquisitions† as the primary ground for the bead in public presentation and productiveness of about 57 % of the concerns in the United Kingdom ( â€Å"Why Amalgamations Cause Such. † 2002. p. 26 ) . A specializer in reorganisation services for Deloitte and Touche. Andrew Peters gives the undermentioned advice to concerns sing amalgamations and acquisitions: â€Å"Any main executive about to ship on a ‘bet the business’ trade needs to inquire whether his or her concern has the appetency and capableness to successfully incorporate what it has bought† ( â€Å"Why Amalgamations Cause Such. † 2002. p. 26 ) . He farther adds that excessively few concerns truly give this inquiry careful attending and idea. Peters besides says that despite the employment and advise of â€Å"highly qualified and experienced advisers† in managing amalgamations. there are still many more abstract facets that make integrating more of a â€Å"hit-and-miss matter. † that could do jobs in the integrating procedure. Peters goes on to urge that concerns come ining into amalgamations give due diligence in be aftering the direction and integrating of their several concern ( p. 26 ) . Walter ( 2004 ) urges that a treatment of the corporate civilization of both the parent and acquired houses be carefully looked into get downing with the pre-merge and acquisition meetings. He stresses that whatever benefits may be brought by the meeting and acquisition procedure ( M A ; A ) are straight linked with successful human interactions. He farther states that it is critical to find whether the most important alterations and possible opposition are â€Å"functional. societal. or rooted in other causes that need to be clearly established in the pre M A ; A stage† ( p. 104 ) . Such step will let senior directors to find and map out possible integrating attacks every bit good as determine possible spreads and jobs when the amalgamation pushes through. There are three of import things that must be kept in head by the transacting parties in finding integrating attacks harmonizing to Walter. These are â€Å"the extent of the cultural spread. the chief intent of the merger/acquisition. and the operating environment of the acquired house or amalgamation spouse. † Walter cautiousnesss that should in the pre-M A ; A phase treatments reveal a cultural spread that is excessively broad. it may be wiser and more prudent to reconsider the dealing. ( p. 104 ) One illustration of the hazards of late planning and underestimate of cultural integrating is the failed amalgamation and acquisition between Hewlett Packard and Apollo Systems in the 1980’s. When engineering elephantine Hewlett-Packard acquired Apollo Systems in 1989. it was a move applauded by industry critics and assessors mentioning the â€Å"perfect fit† of merchandises. concern schemes and consumer bases. It was heralded to be a ‘win-win-win† state of affairs for stockholders. clients and employees. Yet two old ages subsequently. the merged company suffered jobs and merchandise holds brought by troubles in incorporating two entirely different corporate civilizations in add-on to their geographical and physical distance of about 3. 000 stat mis. Feelingss between HP and Apollo forces besides mounted following the surrender surrender of Apollo system’s CEO Thomas Vanderslice and SVP-CFO Richard Bond. With direction and integrating in HP’s custodies. they put out a directive that merely added to the struggle and misgiving between the HP and Apollo forces. † . . . of the 500 headquarters-based employees at the Apollo division. about 150 people hold places that are non usually needed in a merchandise division. HP will seek to put these persons elsewhere within the company. Those who can’t be placed will go forth the company with a lower limit of three months’ salary and other rupture benefits† ( Hewlett-Packard. 1989 ) . ( Legare. 1998 ) With its impulse lost. Apollo finally lost its prima place to Sun Microsystems. Executives from Hewlett Packard were forced to profess that they had underestimated the troubles and effects of incorporating two really different organisations and civilizations ( Legare. 1998 ) . In her article â€Å"The Change-Capable Organization. † ( 2003 ) direction writer and president of the McLagan International Patricia McLagan says that transforming an organisation to be â€Å"change-capable† is every bit simple as using frontward believing and promoting a civilization of invention and trust. McLagan cites several qualities that were common among companies who had an â€Å"inbuilt capacity for alteration. † These are a nexus between the present and future. active support for betterment and alteration. diverseness in squads. advanced thought and attacks. shelter discovery. the integrating of engineering and a deep trust in and among its members ( McLagan. 2003 ) . McLagan farther suggests that alternatively of furthering divisions and restrictions in sidelong communicating among groups. companies should set up environments that encourage the sharing of thoughts and uninterrupted acquisition. This would do sense as there are many different sentiments and ways of believing on issues that an organisation may confront. Such environment will besides do it easier and more fluid for the debut and integrating of new people and thoughts into the organisation. Management plays a cardinal function in the passage and integrating of organisational civilizations. Surveies show that unlike civilizations do non needfully ensue in negative environments. Breu ( 2001 ) posits that a leading manner that promotes tolerance of cultural foibles will be echoed down the line in the organization’s membership/workforce. Such will cut down the potency for struggles and further an environment supportive of alteration ( Breu. 2001. p. 28 ) . Schweiger. Csiszar. and Napier ( 1993 ) back up the thought that alternatively of implementing alteration. human resource contrivers and alteration directors should advance a civilization of credence of differences. They posit that while the thought of â€Å"novation† and development of a new combined civilization may look nice. it will meet troubles merely because it requires people to accommodate and alter. The less intervention direction does the better the opportunities for accommodation and tolerance among the merged civilizations. They besides suggest that directors tasked with commanding passages and alterations act as take a more proactive attack in pointing and circulating information about the amalgamation and its possible deductions to the work force. Making so will significantly cut down the emphasis already being experienced by the affected organisation members/employees who more frequently than non. hold to trust on outside beginnings for information about the amalgamation therefore emphasizing themselves out even more on uncorroborated and frequently bad information ( Schweiger. Csiszar A ; Napier. 1993 ) . Management adviser and writer Ronald Sims ( 2002 ) states that while it is good pattern for directors to maintain an oculus on the touchable elements of their organisation such as policies. construction. engineerings and economic sciences. it will be even better if they besides pay close attending on the more abstract steps of organisational success ( p. 221 ) . These intangibles include squad kineticss. working relationships. leading manners. communicating and single personalities within a squad. Directors who are more cognizant the internal qualities of their organisation will happen it easier to judge possible troubles at the happening of alteration and accordingly be able to map out appropriate schemes to turn to these ( pp. 222 ) . Decision The key to most successful companies and organisations lie in its people. One may use the most modern methods of direction and buy the most technologically advanced equipment. Without the cooperation and attempts of people in the work force nevertheless. these will wholly be for naught. The thoughts and advice cited in the many books. surveies and articles the research worker have consulted for this paper can be simplified in one sentence: neer underestimate the importance of consciousness and planning in managing alteration. people and corporate/organizational civilization. One can non fault employees or members of a group to acquire used to a certain manner or norm. It is nevertheless the director or group leader’s occupation to believe of the possibilities that may come the organization’s manner. In most of the instances cited. the major defect encountered is when directors try to turn to the job of civilization and forces integrating after the merge has been done. Good leaders must be able to expect alteration in all its signifiers be it through the major structural alterations that come with amalgamations or alterations in the market and environment in which the company/ organisation maps. It is besides common and the research worker believes reasonable advice to advance a work environment that exercises tolerance of single and cultural differences instead than wholly impose new constructs and attitudes on an already immune and wary organisation. The thought therefore is that alternatively of anticipating and enforcing complete â€Å"change. † it might be better and even more realistic to travel for accommodation and via media between the differing cultures/organizations. The opposition encountered in incorporate organisations is both inevitable and should be expected. Besides the uncomfortableness at lost acquaintance. there are other stressors such as different policies and criterions to be adhered to. menace of retrenchment. and possible interpersonal struggles among the incorporate workers. Geting companies must be reminded that it is the people at the organisation they are seeking to purchase into that have made it what it is. Due regard and attending to their demands and concerns are non merely proper. but besides indispensable for a successful integrating of forces. Directors and human resource forces must be able to expect and set in topographic point orientation and organisational duologue to assist workers do informed accommodations every bit good as afford them the chance to straight clear up any concerns they may hold. Cultures and alteration are really complex and frequently hard to accommodate. However with premeditation. good planning and leading. consciousness and due diligence in paying attending to worker’s/organizational member concerns. accommodation is non impossible to accomplish. Mentions Aaltio. I. A ; Mills. A. J. ( Eds. ) . ( 2002 ) .Gender. Identity. and the Culture of Organizations. London: Routledge. Retrieved November 25. 2007. from Questia database: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o A ; d=108200426 Bajdo. L. M. . A ; Dickson. M. W. ( 2001 ) . Percepts of Organizational Culture and Women’s Advancement in Organizations: A Cross-cultural Examination. 399+ . Retrieved November 25. 2007. from Questia database: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o A ; d=5000948956 Breu. K. ( 2001 ) . The Role and Relevance of Management Cultures in the Organizational Transformation Process.International Studies of Management A ; Organization. 31( 2 ) . 28. Retrieved November 25. 2007. from Questia database: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o A ; d=5001041615 Buono. A. F. ( 1992 ) . Intervening in the Middle: Coping Schemes in Amalgamations and Acquisitions.Human Resource Planning. 15( 2 ) . 19+ . Retrieved November 25. 2007. from Questia database: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o A ; d=5000163641 Burnett. M. ( Producer ) . ( 2000 ) .Survivor. Los Angeles. California: CBS Boradcasting Inc. . Jandeska. K. E. . A ; Kraimer. M. L. ( 2005 ) . Women’s Percepts of Organizational Culture. Work Attitudes and Role-Modeling Behaviors.Journal of Managerial Issues. 17( 4 ) . 461+ . Retrieved November 25. 2007. from Questia database: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o A ; d=5011758609 Legare. T. L. ( 1998 ) . The Human Side of Mergers and Acquisitions: Understanding and Managing Human Resource Integration Issues.Human Resource Planning. 21( 1 ) . 32+ . Retrieved November 25. 2007. from Questia database: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o A ; d=5001349767 Mclagan. P. ( 2001. October ) . Claim Your Change Power.T A ; D.55. 58. Retrieved November 25. 2007. from Questia database: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o A ; d=5002425015 Mclagan. P. A. ( 2002. December ) . Success with Change.T A ; D.56. 44+ . Retrieved November 25. 2007. from Questia database: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o A ; d=5002507270 Mclagan. P. A. ( 2003. January ) . The Change-Capable Organization.T A ; D.57. 50+ . Retrieved November 25. 2007. from Questia database: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o A ; d=5002512351 Nahavandi. A. . A ; Malekzadeh. A. R. ( 1993 ) .Organizational Culture in the Management of Amalgamations. Westport. Connecticut: Quorum Books. Retrieved November 25. 2007. from Questia database: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o A ; d=27225611 Patent Problems Give a Headache to Glaxo. ( 1996. March 7 ) .The Daily Mail ( London. England ). p. 69. Retrieved November 25. 2007. from Questia database: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o A ; d=5003232399 Poole. P. P. ( 1998 ) . Wordss and Deeds of Organizational Change.Journal of Managerial Issues. 10( 1 ) . 45+ . Retrieved November 25. 2007. from Questia database: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o A ; d=5001333462 Recardo. R. . A ; Jolly. J. ( 1997 ) . Organizational Culture and Teams.SAMAdvanced Management Journal. 62( 2 ) . 4+ . Retrieved November 25. 2007. from Questia database: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o A ; d=5001526066 Schweiger. D. M. . Csiszar. E. N. . A ; Napier. N. K. ( 1993 ) . Implementing International Mergers and Acquisitions.Human Resource Planning. 16( 1 ) . 53+ . Retrieved November 25. 2007. from Questia database: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o A ; d=5000256369 Sims. R. R. ( Ed. ) . ( 2002 ) .Changing the Way We Manage Change. Westport. Connecticut: Quorum Books. Retrieved November 25. 2007. from Questia database: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o A ; d=101319837 Walter. I. ( 2004 ) .Amalgamations and Acquisitions in Banking and Finance: What Works. What Fails. and Why. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved November 25. 2007. from Questia database: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o A ; d=106208352 Why Amalgamations Cause Such Headaches. ( 2002. March 15 ) .The Birmingham Post ( England ). p. 26. Retrieved November 25. 2007. from Questia database: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o A ; d=5006342307

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.